Migration intermediaries can take many different forms: smugglers, brokers, gatos, employment agencies, coyotes, saloceiros, village heads, teachers, travel agencies and family members or wider social networks.

These intermediaries shape migration experiences and outcomes. From directing people to specific destinations and into specific jobs and sectors, to influencing how people migrate and shaping living and working conditions post arrival.

Our research examines:

  • The relationships between the use of intermediaries and migration-related inequalities
  • The ways in which migrants exert agency over the use, form, role and activities of intermediaries.
  • How configurations of policies (migration, labour market, recruitment, social protection) influence the activities, role, form, and consequences of intermediaries.